Nile Water Sharing Agreement

These developments mean that Egypt can no longer persist in the failure of the old agreements to be affected. The first agreement was reached between Great Britain as a colonial power in East Africa and Egypt. Cairo has been favoured over other riparian countries as an important agricultural asset. In addition, the Suez Canal, managed by Egypt, was essential to British imperial ambitions. While most of the river`s water quality is in acceptable values, there are several hotspots, most of which are found in irrigation canals and drainages. The sources of pollution come from agricultural, industrial and household waste. There are 36 industries that dump their sources of pollution directly into the Nile and 41 into irrigation canals. These types of industries are: chemistry, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, fertilizers, food, metal, mining, oil and soap, pulp and paper, fire, textiles and wood. There are more than 90 agricultural effluents flowing into the Nile, including industrial wastewater. [19] Water exceeds the minimum standards for fecal contamination, and there is high salinization and salt penetration in the delta. Salination occurs when there is a build-up of salts in the soil.

The soil cannot retain water that prevents growth. Salt infiltration is when the soil is saturated with salt water. The Northeast Nile Delta region has a high incidence rate of pancreatic cancers, which are believed to be caused by high amounts of heavy metals and organ chlorine found in soil and water. Exposure to cadmium is best known by smoking, although exposure in this region is thought to be due to contact with heavy metals and pesticides in soil and water. [20] Schistosomiasis (a disease caused by parasitic worms) was found in irrigation canals with benthic cyanobacteria forming mats. [1] [21] Lack of planning, corruption in government services, neglect of concerns and payments of poor quality land to the poor, inadequate training of safe handling methods, and irrigation and plant management for men and women contribute to poor water quality. Money is an important factor in improving these areas, but if corruption is eliminated and inter-departmental communication improves, stricter rules and enforcement can be applied immediately. It is recommended that the number of water user associations be increased and a chain of communication be established between them and government authorities. The designation of field supervisors in designated areas for monitoring SEAs and training farmers on irrigation methods (such as drip irrigation, which can apply water to the root zone and reduce water consumption by 30 to 60 percent), ensure effective distribution of water during the harvesting cycle, assolement and soil management. Foreign service chiefs can also monitor water levels, check pump maintenance and report drainage structures. In 1875, the Conservative government of Benjamin Disraeli purchased the 44% stake of the indebted Egyptian ruler Ismail on the Suez Canal for $4 million to secure control of this strategic waterway, a shipping channel between the United Kingdom and India since it opened six years earlier under Emperor Napoleon III.